Posts Tagged ‘art and science’

The Specter

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In hydro-carbons, signals in 1380, 1450 and 2900 cm-1 are characteristic and indicate angular deformation of linking H? C? H (in groups metilas terminals), angular deformation of too much linkings H? C? H and axial deformation of linking C? H, respectively. Valley to affirm that the signal in 2900 cm-1 presents a strong band, for the generated polarity. The axial deformation of linking C? H occurs in 3100 cm-1 (= C? H) and in 3300 cm-1 (if the carbon will be sp). In C? H, the axial deformation of linking C? It occurs it in 1100 cm-1 and? H in 3330 cm-1 (broad band and strong). These data are deriving of oxigenadas functions (alcohol, ether). The carbonlicos composites ester ketone possesss specters IV with bands of absorption in 1735 and 1715 cm-1, respectively, that they are characteristic of axial deformation of the double linking of its carbonilas (C =).

In the case of ester, can be verified a band in 1180 cm-1, referring to the axial deformation of linking C? , What she does not occur in ketones. The characteristic signal of the deformation of the linking C =, is presented as a strong band. Also, it is noticed influence of the phenomenon ' ' ressonncia' ' in the interpretation of this type of specter. In composites with double linking type C = C, is verified a band of absorption between the frequencies 1640 and 1680 cm-1, relative to the axial deformation of the double linking, whereas, in composites with two conjugated double linkings (that is, ' ' separadas' ' for a simple linking), the corresponding signal to the axial deformation of the double linkings occurs between the frequencies 1600 and 1630 cm-1, visa that these linkings acquire ' ' carter' ' of simple linkings, which had to the process of resonance, characteristic of groups C = C? C = C. cyclical Systems influences in frequencies of absorption of functional groups, as for example, in carbonila (C =). In cicloexanona, axial deformation of the linking C = in 1715 cm-1 occurs (the same value of acclica ketone), whereas, in ciclobutanona, this fact is verified in the frequency 1775 cm-1.

It is noticed that, to the diminished being the size of the ring (of six for four members), occurs an increase in the numerical value of the frequency, which had to the increase of the tension in the ring. In this manner, the influence of a cyclical chain in the absorption frequency is related to the size of the chain (or ring) and the tension in the ring. It is possible, also, to occur absorption IV with sprouting of two bands in the specter. Such fact occurs in the analysis of an aldehyde, with the double linking (C =) absorbing in 1725 cm-1 and linking C? H (of HC =) absorbing in 2800 and 2700 cm-1, for axial deformation. If it cannot wait of a specter IV, facilitating ' ' montagem' ' of the chemical structure of a composition taken for analysis. Other organic functions, such as acid carboxlicos, amides, amino, become related with the data shown in this study. This implies that the presented technique is applied to some areas of the knowledge (chemical of natural products, organic synthesis, even though the botany) and of professional performance (chemical, pharmacy, biology, agronomy). Whichever the purpose (scientific, chemical research or analytical toxicologia, clinical analyses, quality control), this presented technique will be of much utility and deserves to be studied and to be practised with ' ' entusiasmo' '.

Scientific Vision

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The physical and mathematical way of Einstein to see the universe already sufficiently was studied with the theory of relativity, effect electric photo, and others, but it lacked something more. The quantum way of Einstein to see the universe passed unfurnished for some factors, one was that its mathematics involved the material side but can formal be changed for the side quantum spiritual and. A point would be if Einstein was the biggest physical genius and mathematical material of the humanity, imagines if this mathematics also to be used in the quantum form and spiritual, where it could have this transformation. The mathematics of Einstein was of the material side therefore the same alone knew this side, but it can have its change for the side quantum spiritual and. This would place the most complex and accurate mathematics and physics and its calculations of the transformed universe of the material side of the substance for the quantum spiritual and. This would mean that Einstein would be understood in its essence and not only in the limited side material of its science..

IDEB Pupils

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For this reason, many pupils do not obtain to relate the calculations that they carry through in its daily one with the set of used rules in the school. Mainly with regard to the Resolution of Problems, this is the biggest difficulty presented for these students. For this fact, Onuchic (1999, P. 211) it defends the Resolution of Problems as education methodology and affirms that ' ' … the pupil in such a way learns mathematics deciding problems as it learns mathematics to decide problemas' '. With this, the practical one of education in the schools by means of the Resolution of Problems if of, in its majority, ' ' … with the purpose to verify the learning and the application of concepts, algorithms, properties and other facts of matemtica' ' (LOPES; MANSUTI, 1994, P.

35). Ahead to the questionings, in relation to the learning, the Index of Development of Educao Bsica (IDEB), shows the reality of the education in the schools, not only in our region as in all Brazil. The numbers show situations of little growth, since the IDEB is calculated of 2 in 2 years, and taking in consideration the numbers of 2005 to the 2009, it is observed that in 2005 the index in Sergipe had average of 3,3, in 2007 got 2,9 already in 2009 got 3,2, being the national average of 3,5. It can be said that, one of the factors that contribute considerably with these numbers it is the high index of reprovao of the pupils in Mathematics. In this manner, the Mathematics, to the being analyzed for the pupils as one also disciplines of difficult understanding and of little practical utility, certainly will go to contribute negative for the performance of the reasoning of this student, with this: The failure of the mathematics education and the difficulties that the pupils present in relation to this discipline are not a new fact, therefore some educators already elencaram elements that contribute so that the education of the mathematics is designated more for failures of what for successes.

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